The officers of the Indian Foreign Service hold almost all the secretariat posts in the ministry of external affairs. Privacy Policy 8. The secretary also seeks the opinion of the deputy secretary and in that case the latter may give his opinion in writing. We have now to discuss the most important person of the cabinet secretariat which is the key to central administrative system. Since efficiency and experience are the chief criteria of the post of cabinet secretary, it is found that, generally, a civil servant is appointed to this post towards the end of his service life. Another man becomes minister and he may appoint new members or administrators in his ministry. The cabinet secretariat is the confluence of all the ministries and departments of the central government and, naturally, all the important matters and policies as well as decisions are sent to the cabinet secretariat for scrutiny and final approval. In other words, the relation between the minister and his secretary is covered with secretness. Weekly summaries on the cases disposed of at lower levels in his ministers/ department are submitted for his perusal. This can be explained in the following way. Read this article to get complete idea about the administration of central government. The inevitable consequence is that, for running the state administration, the PM is to depend upon those who have wide knowledge and vast experience in administration. The Wheeler Committee gave figures to prove that the complaint of the provinces that they did not reap the benefit of reversion of their officers is well founded. There are certain service conditions of employees which require details relating to facts from first hand infor­mation by a field officer. Functions under the first category include seeing of all papers or notes arranged and paged with correct marginal references. This was a unique post and the principles on which the post was created and its relations with the permanent secretary were kept undefined. •Economics and Domestic Affairs Secretariat •Strategy Unit •European and Global Issues Secretariat •National Security Secretariat •Joint Intelligence Organisation •Efficiency and Reform •Corporate Services Group •The Central Office of Information •The National School of Government The great architects of our Constitution adopted the British system of cabinet government in which the Prime Minister is the dominating figure. The Secretariat, one of the main organs of the UN, is organized along departmental lines, with each department or office having a distinct area of action and responsibility. secretariat definition: 1. the office or people responsible for the management of an organization, especially an…. The ordinary people are to run from pillar to post in search of justice or for the removal of grievances. Content Guidelines 2. The Government of India announced a Central Staffing Scheme (1957), according to which the senior positions from deputy secretary and onwards are filled through implementation in the following six categories in the central secretariat: (1) Officers of the Central Administrative Pool. But this is a very important function. Paul R. Brass in his The Politics of India since Independence says: Following Shastri’s example, Mrs. Indira Gandhi used the Prime Minister secretariat as an independent source of advice, but she enlarged its role significantly. Viewed from this perspective we can say that the success of the central administration is not satisfactory. During the Prime Ministership of Rajiv Gandhi the power, status as well as importance of PMO considerably enhanced. The post of OSD is not necessarily indicative of any status, particularly if the incumbent belongs to the middle management level. The PMO provides all information and other details required by the PM. We thus find that into the central administration are included PM, council of ministers and secretariat. The size and functions of the secretariat depend upon the size and complexities of adminis­tration. Today the entire administration has been computerised and the importance of typists has come down considerably. The under and assistant secretaries constitute this lower level. Our public administration performs one job very efficiently and that job is to harass the common people. At the top of the hierarchy comes the department which is headed by the secretary himself or in some cases by an additional/special secretary. 77(3). After Patel’s death in 1950, Nehru was the only voice in the cabinet. Society has been formed by working Govt. It is also referred to as the office. In 1949 the Government of India formed a committee known as Reorganisation of Machinery of Government and this was headed by Gopalswami Ayaangar. A ministry is the charge allotted to a minister which may include one or more departments, each under the charge of a secretary. It made a positive recommendation that the tenure system be rigidly enforced and “officers must go back to the parent departments or state governments as the case may be for a substantial length of time – not less than the period spent outside the department/ state before being considered for another assignment”. All the state governments and governments of Union Territories keep constant touch with the PMO. After three years of successful implementation, the partnership of the ADRIPASS project (Integrating multimodal connections in the Adriatic Ionian Region), funded under the INTERREG ADRION Programme and led by the Central European Initiative - Executive Secretariat, virtually gathered on 2 December for their final conference. It is, in fact, the administrative hub of central administration. Sometime some top administrator or minister creates the post of OSD to meet a special situation. There is no uniform terminology describing the various segments of administrative structure of the Union government. If the minster makes any suggestion or changes the secretariat tries to incorporate them into the draft and gives new shape to it. Its staff was curtailed, and its name was changed too, it was renamed as the Prime Minister’s Office which stays till today.”. Let us conclude this part of our analysis by saying that in our cabinet form of government the PM is the most important figure and though there are large number of ministers he is at the top of them. In the writing of contractualist thinkers-Hobbes and Locke we find the existence of advisers. He says, “The present role and functions of the Cabinet Secretary were conceived first by Gopalswami Ayaanger in his famous report- Re-organistion of the Machinery of Government, 1949. When a secretary has an unmanageable charge of one or more wings, a joint secretary may take charge of each wing. The secretary represents his ministry in all national and international committees and conferences along with the minister. The COD defines secretariat in this way a governmental adminis­trative office or department. We Indians are compelled to adjust ourselves with this untoward situation. Mr. Gopalaswami Ayyangar observed: “The interposition is prima facie an unsatisfactory arrangement. In exceptional cases, the desk can be constituted of more than two officers and even officers of higher grades can be posted to it. The General Secretariat provides the organisation with comprehensive corporate services in the areas of IT, human resources, finance, facilities management, security and meeting services. To remove stagnation at the levels of the deputy secretary and the joint secretary the posts of director and additional secretary have been created. The post of the officer on special duty (OSD) can be traced to the administrative system of British raj. They are also called temporary executives whereas the members of the central secretariat are permanent executives —their tenure does not depend on the vicissitudes of politics or political events. In free India this post came to be known as Cabinet Secretary. The tenure system dates back to the period when the country had unitary government and the Central government was a ‘Government of the Provincial Governments’. At the lowest rung of the ladder stands the lower division clerk whose task is to perform purely routine duties, such as collection of previous papers, maintenance of files and registers, despatch of mail, etc. A small ministry has at least one joint secretary, whereas a large ministry, may have three or more joint secretaries. The Central Secretariat normally performs the following functions: (1) Assisting the minister in the discharge of his policy making and parliamentary functions. We do not consider this a happy state of affairs.”. Secondly, when the government is convinced that it is an obligation to take action in the interest of the large staff employed. This depart­ment supplies all the relevant data and materials necessary for making a draft outline of Plan. In due course, this post got devalued with the interpolation of new cadres like those of joint or additional secretaries. The term secretariat has an interesting root. The Deshmukh Study Team of ARC (1972) recommended the intro­duction of an innovation known as the desk officer system. The authority must take action in response to these changes which means adoption of new policies. Two sections constitute the branch which is under the charge of an undersecretary, also known as the branch officer. (3) An essential duty of the legislature is to make law. Many large ministries like defence, external affairs, finance and home have more than one department included in their charge. For a better and efficient management of administration an artificial separateness has been done. These officers move to Delhi for a specified period of 3 to 5 years to any union ministry and then revert back to their respective states and services. Similarly, officers serving m the field should possess a secretariat experience and an acquaintance with the outlook, the methods and the difficulties of the Central government. The strength of all India services is so fixed with reserve quota so that officers for deputation may be spared by the state and both the administrations may garner the mutual advantages of the tenure system. Posts in the secretariat are limited and aspirants drawn from various all-India and central services are too many. Image Guidelines 5. This crucial function is to be performed by our civil administration. This status has also changed. The discipline has become weak and those who had early deputation are reaping the fruits. I have already pointed out that this- function is performed by the cabinet secretariat. The FSB is governed by its Charter, Articles of Association and Procedural Guidelines. If the minister is defeated in the election his ministry ceases to exist. All the facts and other requirements necessary for taking decision are furnished by the PMO. The Secretariat’s task is to coordinate legislative work and organise plenary sittings and meetings. First, we only place officers on special duty if we are convinced that the officer brings about economy very much greater than the money we spend while we employ him on special duty”. The Administrative Reforms Commission visualised the secretary’s role primarily as one or “coordinator, policy guide, reviewer and evaluator”. In this situation the deputy secretary can directly assist him or give his opinion. The situation has changed in free India. A typical civil servant makes all kinds of efforts to prolong his stay in Delhi and he tries to become eligible for another deputation. Some interpreters of India’s administrative system said that the Prime Minister’s Secretariat became extremely powerful and so powerful that important ministers holding top positions in the party structure had no say in administration and policy-making affairs. “Under Shastri, the influence of the cabinet declined and that of the Prime Minister’s secretariat increased, a trend which continued under Mrs. Gandhi. Content Filtrations 6. The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961 and the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules 1961, facilitating smooth transaction of business in Ministries/ Departments of the Government It is said that efficiency and experience should be the proper criteria because the occupant of the post must have wide experience about the important aspects of Indian administration. The designation OSD has distinctiveness in the hierarchy, which has an attraction. Plagiarism Prevention 4. With its proximity to the seats of power, the secretariat tends to be the repository of all powers and authority of the state government. If a ministry has more than one department, it may have more secretaries, but only one senior will represent the ministry. There is still an important function of the cabinet secretariat. The office verifies facts and points out the laws and rules. There are three levels of secretary ships at the top management in the secretariat. We think that it is the ideal procedure and, in India it is very often followed. An undersecretary holds the charge of a branch. The PMO assists him in the successful discharge of all the various types of duties. PM and other categories of ministers who are all important actors of the decision-making process. This arrangement facilitates coordination, and imparts a sense of importance and urgency to that work. He is in the charge of the department. Imbalance of salary structures, amenities available at the capital, proximity to the centre, greater opportunities for travels abroad, better educational and career opportunities for children have proved too powerful incentives for officers to stay on in New Delhi. The secretary is the adminis­trative head of the department and he is directly related with the minister who is m the charge of department. V. Shankar, P. C. Alexander, R. K. Dhawan, G. Parthasarathi were very powerful civil servants and they were made the head of the PMO. In the administrative system of the union government we find the terms of structure. The Secretariat of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is headed by the Secretary General. (3) The Cabinet Secretariat is a big department consisting of all the ministries of the union government. But it is the PM who takes final decisions on all these appointments. Additional secretary ships and joint secretary ships are filled by members of the Indian Administrative Service. In both cases their correct function is to relieve the secretary of a block of work and to deal direct with the member so far as that work is concerned. For example production department, sales department, engineering department, supply de­partment etc. But in reality there are differences. It is this flexibility in the arrangement that suits the top boss. The introduction of a new post designated as Special Secretary is a example of this distur­bance. The discontinuation of recruitment to this pool after 1946 and depleting of the strength caused by retirement of British officers, transfers arising out of partition and routine retire­ments necessitated a re-examination of the entire question of manning superior secretariat posts. Today the PM is not simply the first among equals. But the fact is that the cabinet secretariat did not find any opportunity to discharge its function. The designation has a peculiar charm for public servants. Those who opt for the secretariat should spend the rest of their career in the secretariat. The very name suggests that the PMO is the right hand of the PM in regard to the decisions-making affairs and administration. The FSB is a member-driven organisation and decisions are taken by consensus. It also envisaged cases in which a wing of the ministry may be headed by an additional secretary himself instead of a joint secretary. Prohibited Content 3. Through its members, it brings together experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus-based, market relevant International Standards that support innovation and provide solutions to global challenges. The Administrative Reforms Commission recommended that the holder of the post of Cabinet Secretary should stay in the post not more than four years. It is said by the experts that theoretically the President, the Prime minister and the cabinet run the administration. This job is done by the cabinet secretariat. The President or the ministers themselves do not make rules, these are in fact, framed by the cabinet secretariat, of course under the guidance of the ministers. The first Cabinet Secretary was appointed in 1950 and NR Pillai was the holder of this most important post. He may not have absolute control over his party, but he is the supreme authority in the entire council of ministers. There were many Congress leaders. They do not revert to the provincial secretariats. The WISA Secretariat became the central secretariat of the OECS and the ECCM, the Economic Affairs Secretariat. Posting in the secretariat are governed by the Central Staffing Scheme and the doors are open to all higher civil services. Wheeler’s arguments for tenure system were: (1) The experience will train civil servants to assume responsibilities and cultivate a sound judgement. But none could challenge, criticise or contradict the opinion of Nehru. To manage such a big department and to ensure its smooth functioning is really a herculean task and this task is to be performed properly and efficiently by the Cabinet Secretary. The towering personality of Nehru surpassed everything in the arena of central government. This Article says: The President shall make rules for the more convenient transactions of the business of the Government of India, and for the allocation among ministers of the said business. From Lord Curzon’s time till independence the secretariat was rather a closed system which could be run by a personnel system called tenure system. The burden of both these functions falls upon the cabinet secretariat. (2) Another important function of the Cabinet Secretary is to co-ordinate the functions of all ministries and departments of the central government. Maheswari writes: The origin of Cabinet Secretariat in India may be traced to the creation of a small secretariat to service the Co­ordination Committee of the War Resources and Reconstruction of Viceroy’s Executive Council. In 1931 a government spokesman, on an important issue, made the following observation,”I want to tell the House that when we place the officers on special duty we do soon two different criteria. Secretariat staff collect data that document economic and/or technological trends and problems. The senior positions were manned by provincial officers borrowed on deputation. The SCO Secretariat, based in Beijing, is the main permanent executive body of the SCO. Lal Bahadur Shastri as PM,seriously felt the necessity of experienced civil servants in respect of advice or suggestions. Other useful links. The Constitution of India has adopted the Westminster model of parliamentary system and in this type of government cabinet consists of top politicians having wide experience in administration and good hold in party. It was felt that the new cadre would in fact create a new central service and thus nullify the ‘tenure system’. This system has since been introduced and adopted by almost all the ministries. The interposition of such officers between the secretary and his deputy has always been disliked and almost every committee has recommended either the abolition of these posts or a drastic reduction in their number. There are numerous functions of the PM. After his death when Lal Bahadur Shastri became PM the importance of the cabinet began to decline and he began to depend upon a group of civil servants which finally gave birth to cabinet secretariat of Prime Minister. Lord Curzon who had a special love for the man working in the districts introduced this practice called tenure system in 1905 with a belief that India may be governed from Simla to Calcutta but has to be administered from the plains. The secretariat is also called cabinet secretariat or central secretariat. (4) A very important function of the Cabinet Secretary is as the hyphen between the central administration and the political machinery of the union government. In spite of this change in tendency the voice of the PM is the voice of the government. Tweet. These conventional devel­opments which started as experiments have come to stay: (D) Central Administrative Pool (CAP) and Finance and Commerce Pool (FCP). If the joint secretary is promoted as additional secretary then his total tenure becomes minimum five and maximum seven years. In coalition government no single party enjoys absolute majority. The policies, decisions and resolutions of all ministries are sent to the -cabinet secretariat. In this respect the cabinet secretariat works as a single unit. Two branches ordinarily form a division which is normally headed by a deputy secretary. (5) The secretariat is guided by self-control principles. There is neither honesty nor efficiency in our administrative system. We observe that the bureaucrats are either inefficient or are not interested in good governance which indicates proper use of resources for social and economic development. One point demands special emphasis. (5) Policy Advisory Committees are being contemplated to facilitate the work of the desk. In every government or private organisation the topmost person such as manager has secretary. A proposal was mooted in 1950 to form the Indian Civil Administrative (Central) cadre to man the superior posts in the secretariat. Thus the two words secretary and secretness are closely related concepts. SR Maheshwari elaborately analysed the origin of the post of Cabinet Secretary. It may mean any position at a given time depending upon ‘the nature and type of work’. If we go through the entire administrative structure we shall find that no specific duty is allotted to the additional secretary. The co-ordination is an important principle of this formula. But whether a policy is properly implemented or not is required to be ascertained and it is the duty of the secretariat to do this job. Moreover, if some work is of a purely temporary character, it may be meaningfully concen­trated in one hand. It is a fact that there is great scarcity of resources. A typical office normally has a Section Officer (Class I and Class II), four assistants and a number of upper and lower division clerks. The period for additional secretary is four years. For appointment to individual ministries, the secretary’s name is approved by the Appointments Committee of the cabinet and finally assented to by the Prime Minister. TOS 7. Sometimes it seeks advice from the minister. He ran or conducted the central administration without exclusively depending upon his cabinet colleagues or civil servants. The introduction of more than one level of authority in top management has disturbed the hierarchy. This body always keeps a watch over the functions of all departments and if there is any lapse or negligence the cabinet secretariat immediately takes action. The system eliminates the section officer level where several assistants and stenographers used to delay matters and kept the files pending. Their main function is to make policy and the civil servants help the ministers in this field. The division of a department or ministry has some practical value or reason. So in the administrative’ system of India there is no doubt an importance of ministers. That means, the Cabinet Secretary must ensure the smooth functioning of these two aspects of central administration. In the central secretariat there are also a number of posts or ranks. (3) Every desk officer has clerical facilities added. (5) It is an easy way out to remove unsuitable officers and post them elsewhere. Nehru had exceptional personality and experience in many matters.