Political, cultural and moral initiative that will inspire hope on all continents can and needs to come from many places. In: Elhiraika A.B., Mukungu A.C.K., Nyoike W. (eds) Regional Integration and Policy Challenges in Africa. 0000002383 00000 n Economic integration should be subservient to social justice and radical democracy. Latin American regional cooperation may also benefit from solidarity and cooperation with regional cooperation in other regions of the South. La soberanía hidroeléctrica paraguaya y los tratados de Itaipú, Yacyretá y MERCOSUR. In decolonising development, art iculating new visions of good life (buen vivir) and building radical democracy the movements South America are today a great source of energy and hope for people on all continents. + The fourth is the mere fact that Latin Ametican efforts towards regional integration can learn from the European experience, positively and negatively. 0000008429 00000 n The Bretton Woods institutions and the WTO-framwork have been insufficient or even dysfunctional for development, ecological responsibility and economic stability, especially for the global South. For this reason the EU carries a vast democratic deficit. The Challenges of Regional Integration for Development in Africa: Problems and Prospects. %PDF-1.4 %���� Three: the peoples must always have effective control, before the fact and after the fact, of the balance of powers between regional and national authorities. 0000004645 00000 n The third is how to promote a development process that does not reproduce social inequalities at the regional and national levels in the name of capital accumulation. The first is how to build regional blocs that go beyond trade to include industrial policy, a shared agricultural policy, macroeconomic coordination, and technology sharing. The EU is now the most advanced model of regional integration globally. But these must be complemented by stronger powers to question and interfere in the formation of this balance by national parliaments. Regional Integration and Challenges of Africa’s Development 7 V. Regional Economic Communities - The Capacity Challenges 8 VI. new IT, nano-technology and genetic engineering make 21st century questions of war and peace more intractable than before. finance and climate. He is affiliated with the Brussels based organisation Corporate Europe Observatory, chair of the Finnish Refugee Council and co-chair of Alternative to the EU – Finland. 15, No. 0000002021 00000 n This article looks at the global and regional integration of the Indian Ocean economy, with a view to identifying challenges to greater integration. Nevertheless I want to welcome the quality and direction of development in many South and Latin American countries in the last few years and the efforts and the decisive contribution of ordinary people from the struggling classes to them. My fourth suggestion is that all political reforms and initiatives now of the short and medium term should be shaped so as not to hamper but rather support a civilisational shift in which the ultimate goals and ideals of development are reconsidered. 8. However, his work dealt neither on how cultural identity will be achieved nor its challenges as regional goals. The consequence is that wars between the leading countries of Europe has become highly unlikely but that their integration between them may become, or has perhaps already become, counter-productive for global security. The people have been seen as prone to aggressive sentiment. The opposite politics of regional integration which allows mobility only internally and is closed to the outer world, with exceptions allowed only for selfish reasons or on market premises is a false and dangerous model. (2) Peace ambitions regionally may be counterproductive for peace globally: In the aftermath of the second world war the sound ambition of the architects of European integration was to prevent the outbreak of war between European nations. The challenges of regional integration in Sub-Saharan Africa: the role of Economic Partnership Agreements. endstream endobj 244 0 obj <>stream Again I hope that I do not offend the many people with other  languages as their first language if I say that the conditions for a common public space, and hence for radical regional democracy is more happy in Latin America than in some other regions. Especially strong integration -- like the European Union -- can lead to the loss of unique minority cultures within a region. 9. In view of recent experiences elsewhere this is likely to be more important for post-national democracy than computer-intensity. Donors and Institutions Supporting Regional Cooperation and – All references are given for purposes of identification and transparency only. regional integration” had attempted to work out the importance of cultural homogeneity with respect to regional integration. 1. 2. Even quite conservative new models for measuring overall success in development, such as the so called Happy Planet Index, indicate that life-conditions in the US, Sweden, Germany and other similar countries reached an all-time high in th 1970s and haved steadily deteriorated since then. The creation of a common internal market and of common external economic policies, especially as regards trade, has been a priority in European integration. Box MP167 Mount Pleasant Harare, Zimbabwe. In global efforts large corporations and states still have a relative advantage over other actors. Simultaneously deregulation, privatisation and trade liberalisation are all on a hold or they are rolled back. Tarifa por debajo del costo (deuda) In this tradition markets and trade have often been given politically very expansive interpretations: in the EU (as in the WTO) the free movement of trade in goods has not been enough. The fifth is how to avoid a technocrat-led process and promote instead the democratization of decision-making in all areas of the economy. Bilal, S. Is the EU model of regional integration? of the integration process, and the current challenges. 2. of Africa’s development. * The European experience shows that regional cooperation can be effective in enhancing the power and  economic and social status of oppressed minorities and underprivileged regions. 237 0 obj <> endobj y�8D�������W�v 5���$l/��tA�biK�. 1. Many of us in these countries still work to preserve and take further the Nordic tradition. MERCOSUR evolved from open regionalism to postliberal regionalism in the course of the first 15 years of the 21st century. 264 0 obj <>stream Some elements of the ALBA perspective, as expressed by some people, reflect the perspective of 1950’s-style national capitalist industrialization, which is probably not suitable for the current period. 0000002120 00000 n In the golden age of the Nordic model, the small North European area that I come from, had disproportionate global significance in pro-people politics. Focus more on South-South Trade r50/82648/2015 a research project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for award of masters of arts degree in international studies october 2016 0000036889 00000 n In 1991, the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) was launched with the aim of fostering regional integration among its four original members—Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. no. In India the elections were won by a centre right still pursuing growth through exports, international competitiveness, intensified exploitation of domestic natural resources and deepened integration into global markets. It can also strengthen the bargaining power of the South, especially the smaller countries of the South, in global politics. European and Eurasian integration initiatives: constitutional challenges. 0000002164 00000 n * Regional, elected parliaments can play an important role in a new regionalism. I suggest that a maximum size of corporations is considered as well as sealings on individual ownership and control of corporate activity. We need a new internationalism that is not founded on state to state cooperation or market integration. This should not be seen as a problem. The strong efforts by trade unions, left governments, environmentalists, women’s movements and others to change the balance of forces in Europe have so far met with, at best, half-success. 0000009033 00000 n Finally the paper identifies the prospects for integration in West Africa. Corpus ID: 130801062. * If we manage to correct the imbalances mentioned the European Union shows that cultural and social solidarity between peoples with a long negative record of wars is possible and can be promoted through regional cooperation. Regional integration has accompanied global economic liberalisation efforts. As a result, African governments have concluded a very large number of regional integration arrangements, several of which have In order to curb excess corporate influence strong measures must be taken at all times. Even under the condition of functional interdependence globally of the competing blocs, climate change, development failures and resource depletion combined with nuclear proliferation and the evolution of new military technologies may easily lead to completely new types of wars with planetary consequences. For instance, the plan to build oil and gas pipelines from Venezuela to the furthermost areas of South America is probably dangerous and damaging not only to the environment but also to the indigenous peoples. + The third is common interest. The industrial growth centred development model that first emerged in Europe and North America in the 18th to 20th century needs to be seriously reconsidered. Nevertheless, for historical, cultural and social reasons the global North cannot be trusted too much in the search for new civilisational visions and new socially and ecologically enriching models for progress and development. They should all be seen as symptoms of an underlying cultural crisis; a crisis of development models and the fundamental aspirations and ideals of modernization. In consequence, the more the economic instruments have developed the more they have dominated over other policy areas in which decision-making has been more confined to the national level. It is for this reason that the organizers of this conference decided to hold it in Asuncion, bringing in activists and government officials from Asia and Africa to interact with people in this region to discuss the lessons that developments here have for the rest of the world. H��S�N�A~�}����p��=_bEKcl*[���@� �M�����դ�&�2��wF This, it may be argued, is the new logic of Western, imperial military hegemony. Two: It is imperative that the juridical hierarchy, including the effective control of constitutional rights and freedoms of people and nature, is never subordinated to economic policies or juridical agreements regulating the economy. From the perspective of radical and comprehensive democracy building from below and strengthening the disempowered is essential in all responses to the crisis. The future belongs, as Indian social philosoper Lohia said fifty years ago, increasingly to “the bastards.” We see every day along the Southern borders of the US and the EU that efforts to keep borders closed and nations clean lead to disaster. Hence, as long as power structure are not altered, we should not expect too much good to come out from institutions working on global regulation of e.g. Globally the political debates seem to be moving from a discussion of separate crises to a discussion of inter-connected crises: of the finance sector, the world economy, political governance, food, water, development and climate. When it goes away we can see again clearly that the modern state in most countries remains committed to a development model in which a mix of capitalist, growth dependent exploitative economy and consumerist, individualistic, civilisational values remains central. The good news is that with neo-liberalism gone, with George Bush down and out and with the states and business sector at a loss both intellectually and morally we can begin to understand our responsibility and define our tasks and challenges more clearly than has been possible during the past ten years. The USA carries the main burden of classical warfare, the EU steps in economically and logistically in the aftermath of the war, takinmg care of crisis management. The legitimacy and need for non-state political cooperation is obvious and  in regional cooperation as well tax-payers money and other public resources should not be exclusively spent on state and market driven integration. He serves as an elected member of the city council of Helsinki and is co-chair of the social-democratic group. The European Union has a series of languages that it deems to be the official languages of the EU government. Chapter II offers an overview of the regional integration process, including progress on intra-regional trade liberalization, the deepening and the widening of CARICOM. The regional cooperation we are looking for must protect and build upon people-to-people solidarity and conviviality. Let me close on a more positive note with some recommendations drawn from the European experience: * Regional integration needs to be built democratically. The new politics of global security that we need, must, as Gandhi and others have clearly seen long back, be linked to the construction of pro-people and environmentally sound development models. The evolution of constitutionalism in the post-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe: some lessons for the post-Soviet space. These can include for instance protection and support of micro and small enterprise as well as of local knowledge systems and forms or democracy, the launch of local and regional currencies with high social and ecological value, and so forth. Special care must be taken at every step to keep economic policies within democratic control and to avoid spill-over from economic policies on social protection, environmental protection and other vital policy areas: Since the 1980s the main left and centre argument in favour of deepening European integration has no longer been the argument from peace. Peace-politics cannot imply thoughtless pacifism. In building regionalism for a new internationalism it is essential that we go beyond the current logic of competetive identity politics. 7. 0000007621 00000 n For this and other reasons the primacy of economic policy instruments is a deep-seated feature of European integration. Integration has proceeded on the initiative and under the leadership of bureaucratic elites. State borders are becoming more porous than before, people are meeting and mixing more than before. (3) Regional cooperation for global governance needs to be built democratically from below. Los puntos que el Paraguay plantea. Regional economic blocs are not new. V ��B ���҄������{�'�9{�5����m}������Fl�!�y����X���i��کCJ^cE�k���+,i�e���J?_P���sڨ��֫1���ȓi�>R�0��CLj��Z�� -Ub\���=�j�.F4w���a��BB371���ȍAM]ǀ&�Яd)��,A\ׂ�����h�2�5r ].F�ѡDQLC���h�@a�\��ϢU}����T�4~�7�Փ�o�>t��:sТ��hV,_������6�������?�����~�����;�N܏{F�-�3`�|. However, some of the more prominent ones have either not moved beyond a primitive stage, as in the case of SAARC in South Asia, or have been based on neoliberal principles, like ASEAN in Southeast Asia. The experience of the past years has shown clearly the inadequacy of the current structure, instruments and policies of global financial regulation and economic development. The lesson to be learnt is that regional cooperation must, much more than has been the case in Europe, be built democratically, with explicit consent and support by the citizens. With these remarks I wish Paraguay and all countries in Mercosur and South and Latin America at large determination and democratic energy for regional cooperation that will enhance a new internationalism and civilisational renewal world-wide. Control y trasparencia. 0000006829 00000 n For this reason pro-people regional cooperation should systematically promote cultures and economies of sustainability and peace. 2. Everywhere people recognise that the ruling elites are failing and at a loss. E-mail:  thomas.wallgren@helsinki.fi. Regional trade arrangements also played a role. Pérdidas por la no integración eléctrica. Protecting the rule of law in post-Soviet states: the relevance of European and Eurasian integration Africa’s challenges call for pragmatism and a sense of urgency in action. For many of us from outside Latin America, the dynamics of ALBA hold particular interest. The second is how to ensure that building complementarity among economies does not reproduce the old, unequal division of labor between stronger and weaker economies. He serves as an elected member of the city council of Helsinki and is co-chair of the social-democratic group. And the OAU had some successes and challenges, but the exigencies necessitated a shift in the paradigms undergirding the integration effort. They need to include very tight transparency regulation and, as I believe, innovative, radical anti-trust regulation. We can still draw insight and inspiration from the Gandhian notion of and experiments with truth-force (“satyagraha”). The main lesson of the past winter is that neo-liberalism was always only a radical fashion, a tip of the iceberg. March 3-4, 2016. Acta de Foz de Yguazu. He is the author of 15 books, the latest of which is The Food Wars (New York: Verso, 2009). In actual fact different European countries have different between them quite different kinds of membership in the EU both politically and juridically. All in all, it is clear by now that radical shifts in power structures, economic distribution or national or international policies are not easily within reach. The global trend in the last years and months is not that neo-liberal capitalism is replaced by socialism, a new green politics or even social liberalism but, unfortunately, by authoritarian capitalism. Accepted 12 September, 2008 Regional integration is increasingly being accepted as essential in facilitating economic and political development. Developed and developing countries have embraced regional integration because of its perceived benefits in increasing trade and enhancing sustainable growth (Mansfield and Milner 1997; Milner and Kubota 2005).However, the proliferation of regional integration, especially in the developing world, has … The mechanisms to achieve this need careful attention. + The first is a commonality of cultural values and identity. %%EOF In this spirit I want to join the large number of people on all continents who enthusiastically welcome the recent wave of positive developments in Latin America, including also many smaller countries, such as Bolivia, Ecuador and Paraguay. integration is that the great ma jority of Regional Integration Arrangements (RIAs) involve n eighboring countries (hence the term “regional”). Globalization has ended in massive failure. x��UoL[U?��6ڧPQ��;;�H'm����La0��`�H� `�*@,��w��e��m;��J( �ņM0/t��h57�7R��r+�3^\hz���Y��i��k�4)�?�7�'���O�$�I$ߒZ�V��E�a35�S�:�s:V���6ɧO��U1Di�xUx U|27.^/�OCS��7|$m=���t������\�=~�ɪ���iOWK�}�m��"e4�3�����M.? The challenges of regional integration in Southern Africa @article{Chingono2009TheCO, title={The challenges of regional integration in Southern Africa}, author={Mark Chingono and Steve Nakana}, journal={African Journal of Political Science and International Relations}, year={2009}, volume={3}, pages={396-408} } (In the EU this is still not the case!) Most times, conflicts that are found in culturally diverse communities are largely unavoidable. Challenges of Regional Integration By Thomas Wallgren * Presentation given at International Conference of governments and social movements “Regional Integration: an opportunity to face the crises” (21 and 22 July 2009, stuff Asunción del Paraguay) ;�Rξezw$]�[xi��!�V���4�L��Z��}�7=����3/��q�����٣S�0�3�>r����O{'��� Ŷ��j�^r�G��W��ŵ��hc3&�{�`�j,�.�8#P���L���!���ڈ�]�F�gr��Z�`��pbQ��"ˏ��l�p���bt��~�����x�'��a����F���}����`�3����*�փ>�#-;yG�m It is true in a limited sense. Regional integration has a final non-economic disadvantage. 0000005714 00000 n Together the cooperating regions may make historic contributions to a post-colonial and post-imperial, pluricentric and peaceful world order. Civil society must not only provide a check to both the state and the market, but it must be the leading force in the new economics. This is not only a concern at the international level where bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements are known to undermine human rights. The Challenges of Regional Integration for Development. Drawing on analysis and inspiration coming from the 18th century German enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant and others, the idea has been to promote peace through functional integration of the national economies in the region. �㙆��W�8�%Ѫ~�a :��N���F���@�s�`���L��6>��yd78M,x���Qiej�q� �_�����ACy�4!��csb�#G!����Y*�f�˩��{u]����� In fact, what we witness on all continents is a colossal lack of political and cultural creativity in the state and corporate sector. Journal of Social Sciences: Vol. Beneficios si hay integración eléctrica solidaria. Regional cooperation in the South should not only protect the weak. DESCARGUE LA PRESENTACION COMPLETA EN PDF, (Speech at the Conference on “Regional Integration: an Opportunity Presented by the Crisis”, look Universidad de Deportes, Asuncion, Paraguay, July 21-22, 2009.). Because of systemic constraints in the so called leading nations we cannot wait for the Obamas and even Lulas of the world to show the way for the deep changes we need. 3. 10. These can emerge on the basis of the variety of sustainable life-styles, democracies and civilisational values existing today especially in the global South. for intra-regional trade. The new argument has been the argument from globalization. 0000000016 00000 n ;n�I�\N��#K�?NzaLR��_�*)��,���7 ��1t�=�L1yx��u���)�� ��� Finally, the last I would mention is how to undertake a process of regional integration that transcends the logic of capitalism, to borrow the words of Hugo Chavez. The challenges of regional integration in Southern Africa Mark Chingono* and Steve Nakana University of Zimbabwe, P. O.