Production figures at the time were disappointing. Mao envisioned the Jiangxi Soviet as both a military stronghold against the nationalists and a laboratory for the trialling of communist economic and social policies. It ranged from parading through the streets wearing a dunce cap, to wearing a placard around their neck. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. In 1923, the Kuomintang (KMT) nationalist party had allied with the CCP to defeat the warlords who controlled much of northern China. Once China became weak and poor Mao Zedong took power. The Revolution was an enormous catastrophe and it resulted in a huge number of peopled dying and important cultural monuments and items getting destroyed. Mao named this act as "the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution." The workers were now paid for the work they did in place of being paid according to what they needed. As the First Five Year Plan, it moved China forward a great deal. The result, instead, was a massive decline in agricultural output, which, together with poor harvests, led to famine and the deaths of millions. Despite all of this, the First Five Year Plan changed China enormously. In 1949 Mao got his power. In 1966, two groups met to discuss the Wuhan incident which was a conflict between two hostile groups wanting to take over the city of Wuhan. Mao's supporters were imprisoned, and Deng Xiaoping, who followed Mao, revised Mao's policies so that Chinese people could have private ownership. Industry had to be shifted from the construction of small enterprises to the establishment of small enterprises all over the country. The people worked so much that even at night, there was little time to rest, due to the resulting weakness, illness, and death caused by the labor. Many died after the Great Leap due to the effects of the plan. Mao then formed the Red Army and his followers elected him as the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party. Read more about Mao’s life here. With all of this though, Mao is still worshiped and praised in China today. The forms of public humiliation grew more and more humiliating and complicated. During this time, Mao attempted to encourage peasants to form communes which would increase production levels. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. This plan was inspired by the Soviet Five Year Plans by Joseph Stalin in Russia, which started in 1928. Which method shall we adopt? This resistance could not be expressed through the taking of land without an open rebellion. In comparison to the Kuomintang, the Kuomintang solved budgetary deficits by issuing new notes and borrowing large sums of money from creditors. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. "It was the Maoist response to the consequences of early industrialization." Children were to be placed in communal nurseries and schools and to live in dormitories. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Study for free with our range of university lectures! The slaughtering of their animals at the time was called "wanton slaughter," and this reduced the animal population in large areas drastically. "(Winnington, 1986) The Great Leap Forward was Mao's attempt to free himself from Soviet control and to speed up the advance towards communism. History To what extent are modern day eugenics policies in China a response to cold war policies of Mao Zedong? '"(Spence, 1990) The revolution was an attack on culture. Mao Zedong shows how a revolution is to be carried out. "(Spence, 1990) This meant that at that time, half of those that were dying were under 10 years old. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. Mao was a Chinese communist leader and founder of the People's Republic of China. (Fortune City, para. Education 115 likes. "(Spence, 1990) The resultant was a famine that caused a great deal of damage. The plans started after the completion of the first phase of the land reform campaign. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. He believed that this would be beneficial for the young people of China because they could learn proletarian values and the lifestyle. Collaborations were arranged among peasant families in harvesting and planting crops. In 1976 Mao passed away and lost power. Elderly people and intellectuals, in addition to being verbally abused were also physically abused by the Red Guards and many died. He wanted to change the agrarian society that is China, into a modern communist society instead. Mao proposed two main Five Year Plans to change China. It took 20 million lives or more from 1959 to 1962. Mao's intention of changing China was fulfilled but the consequences were immense. One of these men is Mao Zedong. Chairman Mao Zedong gathered a group of r… In the 1960s, Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong came to feel that the current party leadership in China, as in the Soviet Union, was moving too far in a revisionist direction, with an emphasis on expertise rather than on ideological purity. Therefore, they created a new part of the Chinese society, heralding the start of a revolution against the gentry as a social class in the country. Deng Xiao-Ping, as the Minister of Finance, played a major role in the drafting of China's First Five Year Plan. *You can also browse our support articles here >. The First Five Year Plan was from 1953-1957. Private garden plots and the ownership of domestic animals were permitted again. This is from the current 185 million metric tons to a target of 240 million metric tons. The Communists and KMT were again temporarily allied during eight years of war with Japan (1937-1945), but shortly after the end of World War Two, civil war broke out between them. During this time, religion was frowned upon and temples and religious monuments were destroyed or damaged. He took advantage of the financial state that the peasants were in. Some remember how they searched for apricot pits fallen from trees in order to press them for oil or boil them for porridge. This treaty was called the Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance and it was formed in 1950. This was the work of the communes and the communal labor teams. In 1921, he became a founder member of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and set up a branch in Hunan. The political agenda at the time was to not only confiscate or destroy private property, but to also completely nationalize all industrial enterprises, to abolish interests on deposits in the state banks, to evict landlords from their own houses, to eliminate private plots, to strengthen the commune system, and to private market economy (this included even very poor peasants selling vegetables at a village corner). "(Meisner, 1999) The plan met its quotas well enough but it revealed the flaws in the Chinese economic system. (Michael, 1977) "The people were assigned to squadrons, formed into companies, battalions, regiments and divisions, and in addition to the organization of labor in this form, these units were also to provide regular military training-for women as well as for men-in a people's militia." "The average amount of grain available to each person in China's countryside, which had been 205 kilos in 1957 and 201 kilos in 1958, dropped to a disastrous 183 kilos in 1959, and a catastrophic 156 kilos in 1960." Lesser known is that Mao was also responsible for some very strange policies and downright shocking behavior in his personal life, as you’ll see in this list of 10 horrible facts about Mao. Only the peasants could provide both the labor and the tax that was required by the economic development. "It was his last desperate attempt to revive a revolution that he believed was dying. It promised China support in every field. 2) Mao's wife, Jiang Qing was the one who urged Mao to start the Cultural Revolution. October of 1958, it was claimed that fifty million people were in iron and steel production in over 600,000 backyard steel furnaces. This, along with the Cultural Revolution, changed China forever. In 1923, Mao, the Leader of the Chinese Communist Party and Chiang Kai-Shek, the leader of the Kuomintang temporarily merged parties. All opposition was ruthlessly suppressed. Mao Zedong tried to reduce China's dependency on foreign industry by instituting the 5-year Plan. There was even an attempt to introduce a great leap forward to poetry, which encouraged millions of people to try writing poetry which produced hundreds of thousands of folk tales and songs. The elderly people were to be placed in "old peoples' happy homes" where they were made to work according to their ability. They both started incorporating more liberal economic policies, but Mao soon realized that the two officials were "abandoning socialist principles and betraying the Communist revolution of 1949. In the mid-1950s, Mao implemented a Soviet-style economic program, the First Five Year Plan, and set about collectivising peasant land into huge communes. It was during this time that he began to read Marxist literature. In 1972, US President Richard Nixon visited China and met Mao. It was placed under three additional slogans, "Three Red Banners: the General Line," "the Great Leap Forward," and the "People's Communes." Industry came under state ownership and China's farmers began to be organised into collectives. In September 1967, with many cities on the verge of anarchy, Mao sent in the army to restore order. Due to the lack of success from the Great Leap Forward, Mao stepped down from his leadership. 2) Mao shut down schools and he ordered the Red Guards to attack traditional values and "bourgeois" things and to publicly criticize party officials in order to test them. This resulted in a restatement of the aims of the economic program on December 10. "Bank rates that had been 70 percent to 80 percent per annum in December 1949 were brought down to 18 percent in 1950, and to 3 percent in 1951." Maoism is the Chinese version of Marxism and Leninism. By the turn of the 20th century, part of the China’s traditional elites like landlords increasingly became skeptical of the Confucianism. Mao realized that he could no longer rely on the Soviet government and he sought ways to break free. Scrap metal from households were collected to be used as the raw materials needed. China's investment in industry rose along with the rise in national income in 1959, therefore grain exports to the Soviet Union also increased in order to pay for heavy machinery. The Cultural Revolution The effort by Mao Zedong to completely reform Communist China by eliminating traditional values and capitalist power What are we (Spence, 1990) China's central planners, including Chen Yun and Zhou Enlai believed that the peasants of China would produce more if they were given the motivation to do something, the opportunity to buy more consumer goods, better agricultural machinery, and an increased amount of chemical fertilizers. For example, the remaining great city walls of Peking were demolished in order to create flaw new boulevards, and many underground shelters were built in case of nuclear attacks from the United States. Along with this, bank interests were brought down. The idea of communes was still maintained but the function of these communes was limited to coordination and direction. (Spence, 1990) Human rights at the time were annulled and many people were persecuted. At one end of historic Tiananmen Square is Mao’s mausoleum, visited daily by large, respectful crowds. This was an ideal area for the start of the First Five Year Plan. The communes were no longer military-like, but instead they were administrative units. It is also called The Great Leap Forward because of how much it moved China forward. Therefore, there was a great deal of people who were illiterate which made them unprepared for factory work. Immediately after the Second Five Year Plan, Mao initiated the Cultural Revolution. In 1958, Mao launched his second Five Year Plan, dubbed the Great … (Spence, 1990) The Chinese utilized a method that was also applied in Eastern European Communist states. He wanted to do that through agriculturalizing, industrializing, and collectivizing. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! A way he utilized was a slogan which said "Dare to Think, Dare to Act." Many young people were ordered to relocate to the countryside. 2) Mao's wife, Jiang Qing was the one who urged Mao to … Mao wanted "to replace his designated successors with leaders more faithful to his current thinking; to rectify the Chinese Communist Party; to provide China's youths with a revolutionary experience; and to achieve some specific policy changes so as to make the educational, health care, and cultural systems less elitist. For example, they used the Peking opera as an example to show that it could be revolutionized. The first plan was successful, but the second called the Great Leap Forward was not. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Mao Zedong, along with his followers attempted to change China, and they succeeded in doing so forever. That is the effect of his propaganda today. Mao Zedong (1893-1976) was both a product and a part of the revolutionary change in 20th-century China. Mao Zedong, principal Chinese Marxist theorist, soldier, and statesman who led his country’s communist revolution and served as chairman (chief of state) of the People’s Republic of China from 1949 until his death in 1976. In reality, it was not as successful as it was said to be. This is the support that Russia already gave China before the First Five Year Plan. Mao stated that there were two possible methods of work. They both started incorporating more liberal economic policies, but Mao soon realized that the two officials were "abandoning socialist principles and betraying the Communist revolution of 1949. Communist is a society where people 's properties are owned. Mao Zedong (vereenvoudigd Chinees: 毛泽东; traditioneel Chinees: 毛澤東; pinyin: Máo Zédōng) (Shaoshan, 26 december 1893 – Peking, 9 september 1976) was een Chinees rebellenleider, dictator, partijleider en grondlegger van de Volksrepubliek China waarvan hij de eerste leider was. Mao's cult of personality, party purges, and political policies reflect Mao's esteem of these traditional Chinese ideals and history. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. The people's militia that was formed brought strength to local areas. This included the following: political, military, economic, and cultural. In order "[f]or China's heavy industry to keep up its rapid development, accordingly, production by the agricultural sector had to increase." Films of the Soviet Union were even shown to peasants and ordinary Chinese to show them what to aspire to. (Suyin, 1976) In some ways he achieved that. A blank sheet of paper has no blotches, and so the newest and most beautiful words can be written on it, the newest and most beautiful pictures can be painted on it. Two of the party's senior officials Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping replaced Mao with the day-to-day affairs of the People's Republic. He was born December 26, 1893, in the small village of Shaoshan in Hunan province. He was a Chinese revolutionary and a communist leader. Countless other committed suicide…"(Spence, 1990) The country was gripped with fear, excitement, tension, and euphoria which brought on violence. The government had a great deal of budgetary deficits and they solved that problem by selling government bonds. The rest of the day was also scheduled and the evenings usually included communal recreation. Manchuria had the greatest concentration of natural resources and due to it being a Japanese puppet state, it was the most industrialized area in China. "One will result in doing the work faster and better; the other slowly and not so well. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! The highest point of this radical program came in 1967 and it was given the name the "January power seizure." Mao appeared victorious, but his health was deteriorating. In the small village of Shaoshan in Hunan Province China, a leader was born; Mao Zedong (Schram,125). One-and-a-half million people died and much of the country's cultural heritage was destroyed. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Every day at six o'clock AM, there was a reveille and the people were to march in military formation to and from work. Copyright © 2003 - 2021 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. The aftermath of his plans and his revolution continued to change China, long after his death. There were food shortages which led to strict rationing and ultimately this lead to famines. Mao Zedong’s infatuation with ideologies of past political figures, such as Marx and Lenin, are also crucial in understanding Mao’s rise and will be investigated how such philosophies could contribute to the calamitous revolution and where Mao broke away from Marx’s message. At the time, China still owed Russia a great deal and China greatly needed an agricultural surplus in order to pay back the huge amount of debt it owed to the Soviet government. Family life was again permitted and the old and the young were allowed to live together. After training as a teacher, he travelled to Beijing where he worked in the University Library. Find out more about how the BBC is covering the. With that debacle, Mao, and with him, Mao Zedong Thought, were marginalized. Whether the effects were positive or negative, Mao definitely changed China forever. No plagiarism, guaranteed! People get paid according to their abilities. Peasants at the time were starving in their villages. It has become more popularly known under the second slogan though. In addition to this, high output of materials was very important and therefore quantity was placed above quality. "(Meisner, 1999) This allowed the Chinese Communist Party to be able to develop a plan for the nation's economic development. Thousands were imprisoned in solitary confinement and millions were sent off to "purify" themselves through labor in the countryside. Mao's response to the disappointing agricultural production was "a strategy of heightened production through moral incentives and mass mobilization under the direction of inspirational local party leaders." There was little attention paid to quality. The Chinese intellectual tradition of the past century can be defined by the concept of iconoclasm and nationalism. It lowered the average age of people dying and it caused a great deal of famine and death. This aimed at mass mobilisation of labour to improve agricultural and industrial production. In 1957, before the Great Leap had begun, "the median age of those dying was 17.6 years; in 1963 it was down to 9.7. Therefore, by the end of 1959, many of the furnaces were left which was due to them not being able to produce a high-standard product. "[V]arieties of radical groups who were not coordinated by central leadership, struggled with party leaders and with each other." "(Suite 101, para. In 1953, when the First Five Year Plan was being initiated, more assistance from the Soviet was required. After World War II ended, Mao's army defeated Chiang's army and Chiang retreated. Even with all the taxes and labor, the Communists lacked the capital required to repay the Soviet government. The people were to live together in barracks and they were to eat together in barrack mess halls with communal kitchens and they were then to be organized into work teams with labor applied to industrial or rural work. In an attempt to re-assert his authority, Mao launched the 'Cultural Revolution' in 1966, aiming to purge the country of 'impure' elements and revive the revolutionary spirit. This however is not true. (Spence, 1990) These methods were carried out by Deng Xiaoping as the party secretary-general, and Liu Shaoqi who seemed to be Mao's possible successor. Mao Zedong's policies to develop China. The purpose of Mao's Second Five Year Plan was still to increase industrial and agricultural output but it was not a very big success. They engaged in a propaganda war and this affected Mao's leadership as some was anti-Party. The beginnings of agricultural collectivization included mutual aid teams and peasant cooperatives. 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