History. "Inventing Social Categories through Place: Social Representations and Development in Nepal." kilometers (56,827 sq. It was mentioned in classical Indian literature. Nepal, country of Asia, lying along the southern slopes of the Himalayan mountain ranges. km. In total, there are 103 castes or ethnic groups. Pigg, Stacy Leigh. The Kingdom of Nepal, a small Hindu-majority nation wedged between India and China in the Himalayas, became a multiparty federal republic in 2008. Each of the other 92 castes/ethnic groups make up less than 2%. Of course, Nepal is associated with the Himalayan Range, including the world's tallest mountain, Mt. He became known as the Buddha, or "the enlightened one.". Nepal is one of the oldest countries in the world. Lumbini, Gautama Buddha’s birthplace in southern Nepal, and Nepal Valley also figure prominently in Buddhist accounts. This was achieved by the Thapa family (1806–37) and, even more extensively, by the Rana family (1846–1951). HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Early History: Available evidence of Nepal’s distant past is scant, but the earliest inhabitants were likely of Tibeto-Burman ethnicity and lived in small settlements with little political centralization. The central hill-lands, including the Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys, have a temperate climate and are also influenced by the monsoons. Although intrafamilial arrangements on such questions as the succession and the distribution of responsibilities and spoils were achieved, no effective national political institutions were created. They made considerable progress, but successive setbacks in wars with China and Tibet (1788–92), with the Sikh kingdom in the Punjab (1809), with British India (1814–16), and again with Tibet (1854–56) frustrated Nepal and set the present boundaries of the kingdom. In the early 7th Century, Amshuvarma, the first Thakuri king took over the throne from his father-in-law who was a Lichhavi. The first written records date back to the Kirati people, who lived in eastern Nepal, and the Newars of the Kathmandu Valley. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, A Brief History of the African Country of Liberia, Ancient India and the Indian Subcontinent, List of Indian States and Union Territories, J.D., University of Washington School of Law, B.A., History, Western Washington University. Prehistory and early history Nepal’s rich prehistory consists mainly of the legendary traditions of the Newar, the indigenous community of Nepal Valley (now usually called Kathmandu Valley). In the 4th or 5th century A.D., the Licchavi dynasty moved into Nepal from the Indian plain. The Malla dynasty, which ruled from the 10th to 18th centuries, imposed a uniform Hindu legal and social code on Nepal. References to Nepal Valley and Nepal’s lower hill areas are found in the ancient Indian classics, suggesting that the Central Himalayan hills were closely related culturally and politically to the Gangetic Plain at least 2,500 years ago. KANCHHI, SHARMILA MALLA ON COVER OF ‘KAMANA’ IN 1985. Prithvi Narayan Shah (reigned 1742–75) and his successors established a unified state in the central Himalayas and launched an ambitious and remarkably vigorous program of expansion, seeking to bring the entire hill area, from Bhutan to Kashmir, under their authority. Both versions are accepted indiscriminately in the festivals associated with legendary events, a tribute to the remarkable synthesis that has been achieved in Nepal between the two related but divergent value systems. Famous Nepalese Historical Personalities Famous People From Nepal In the north, the high Himalayas are extremely cold and increasingly dry as the altitude rises. 240 members are directly elected; 335 seats are awarded by proportional representation; 26 are appointed by the Cabinet. Everest. The Lichavis are said to have migrated into Nepal from north India in around 250 A.D. Nepal is bordered by the Tibet, an Autonomous Region of China, to the north and India in the east, south and west. The civil war between Maoist rebels and the government, which began in 1996 and ended in 2007, severely reduced Nepal's tourism industry. But intermittent warfare between Tibet and China terminated this relationship, and, while there were briefly renewed contacts in subsequent centuries, these were reestablished on a continuing basis only in the late 18th century. In 1950, the push for democratic reforms began. Nepal Bhasa is a Tibeto-Burman tongue, part of the Sino-Tibetan language family. The ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, campaigned to unite the various kingdoms … Nepal was also in contact with China. Nepal - Nepal - Animal life: The forested areas of the Tarai are the home of tigers and leopards, gaurs (wild ox), occasional elephants and buffalo, and many deer; the deer include chital, or axis, deer (which have white-spotted bodies), sambar (a large Asiatic deer with coarse hair on the throat and strong antlers), and swamp deer. Kirats ruled Nepal for about 1000 years (800 BC to 300 AD). Nepal (English: / n ɪ ˈ p ɔː l /; Nepali: नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a sovereign country in South Asia.It is mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.It is the 49th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. There is substantial archaeological evidence of an early Buddhist influence in Nepal, including a famous column inscribed by Ashoka (emperor of India, 3rd century bce) at Lumbini and several shrines in the valley. King Yalambar (the first of their 29 kings) is mentioned in the Mahabharata, the Hindu epic, but little more is known about them. The two largest are Indo-Aryan: Chetri (15.8% of the population) and Bahun (12.7%). Background of experiment with democracy 1950 movement for democratization Although the earlier Kirati dynasty had claimed the status of the Kshatriya caste of rulers and warriors, the Licchavis were probably the first ruling family in that area of plains Indian origin. Nepal, however, was also careful to maintain a friendly relationship with China and Tibet, both for economic reasons and to counterbalance British predominance in South Asia. To read about the background to these events, see History of Nepal. Nepal is a collision zone. The Sarbochha Adala (Supreme Court) is the highest court. The population is primarily rural (Kathmandu, the largest city, has less than 1 million inhabitants). Nepal was known to the Ancient Indians. Jaya Sthiti’s successor, Yaksha Malla (reigned c. 1429–c. miles), sandwiched between the People's Republic of China to the north and India to the west, south, and east. The southern Tarai Plain is tropical/subtropical, with hot summers and warm winters. The Gurkhas, led by the Shah dynasty, soon challenged the Mallas. Prince Siddharta Gautama (563-483 B.C. A coherent dynastic history for Nepal Valley becomes possible, though with large gaps, with the rise of the Licchavi dynasty in the 4th or 5th century ce. The earliest points of Nepal history include reference to the Newars, the original settlers of the country. Netherlands - History Background, Constitutional Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary Primary Education, Secondary Education Nauru Nepal - History Background High Religion: A Cultural and Political History of Sherpa Buddhism, 1989. The first civilizations in Nepal, which flourished around the 6th century B.C., were confined to the fertile Kathmandu Valley where the present-day capital of the same name is located. In the 6th century BC, Prince Siddhartha Gautama was born into the Sakya royal family of Kapilavastu, near Lumbini, later embarking on a path of meditation and thought that led him to enlighten… See more ideas about nepal, history, vintage. Smaller minority religions include Islam, with about 4%; the syncretic religion called Kirat Mundhum, which is a blend of animism, Buddhism, and Saivite Hinduism, at about 3.5%; and Christianity (0.5%). IT STILL IS A LEADING CINE … Nepal's history dates back to the time of the Gopalas and Mahishapalas who are believed to have been the earliest rulers of the valley with their capital at Matatirtha, the south-west corner of Kathmandu Valley. They were ousted by the Kirantis around the 7th or 8th Century B.C. By the 16th century virtually all these principalities were ruled by dynasties claiming high-caste Indian origin whose members had fled to the hills in the wake of Muslim invasions of northern India. Archaeological evidence shows that Neolithic humans moved into the Himalayas at least 9,000 years ago. Stories of their exploits begin around 800 B.C. Nepal is home to nearly 29,000,000 people. Both Brahmanic Hindu and Buddhist legends relate the tales of ancient rulers from Nepal. Temperatures reach 40°C in April and May. The country might seem like a small piece of land, but it encloses varieties from all around the world. Attempts have been made to diversify trade through agreements with such countries as Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, the … Extensive cultural, trade, and political relations developed across the Himalayas, transforming the valley from a relatively remote backwater into the major intellectual and commercial centre between South and Central Asia. Nepal covers 147,181 sq. Agriculture employs more than 75% of the population and produces 38% of GDP. Nepal is primarily a Hindu country, with more than 80% of the population adhering to that faith. Its territory extends roughly 500 miles (800 kilometres) from east to west and 90 to 150 miles from north to south. A new constitution was finally ratified in 1959, and a national assembly elected. Major Cities: Pokhara, population 200,000, Patan, population 190,000, Biratnagar, population 167,000, Bhaktapur, population 78,000. However, Buddhism (at about 11%) also exerts a lot of influence. One of the legacies of the Lichhavis is the Changu Narayan Temple near Bhaktapur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site (Culture), which dates back to the 5th Century. This is a timeline of Nepalese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Nepal and its predecessor states. The lowest point is Kanchan Kalan, at just 70 meters (679 feet). The Durbar Square is a public area containing centuries-old royal palaces … Nepal also marks the collision point between Hinduism and Buddhism, between the Tibeto-Burmese language group and the Indo-European, and between Central Asian culture and Indian culture. Small kingdoms and tribal confederations controlled various areas of the Tarai Region in the south. The regents and the nobility competed for political power, using the young rulers as puppets; both factions wanted a monopoly of political offices and power for their families, with their rivals exterminated, exiled to India, or placed in a subordinate status. The Licchavi dynastic chronicles, supplemented by numerous stone inscriptions, are particularly full from 500 to 700 ce; a powerful, unified kingdom also emerged in Tibet during this period, and the Himalayan passes to the north of the valley were opened. She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U.S. and South Korea. 1482), divided his kingdom among his three sons, thus creating the independent principalities of Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur (Bhadgaon) in the valley. In the early 18th century one of the principalities—Gorkha (also spelled Gurkha), ruled by the Shah family—began to assert a predominant role in the hills and even to pose a challenge to Nepal Valley. Each of these states controlled territory in the surrounding hill areas, with particular importance attached to the trade routes northward to Tibet and southward to India that were vital to the valley’s economy. Background. The towering Himalaya Mountains attest to the colossal tectonic force of the Indian Subcontinent as it plows into mainland Asia. It has been influenced by the different cultures and people living in the country. and lived until 483 B.C.E. Lichavi Dynasty . Geography & History of Nepal. In 1769, Prithvi Narayan Shah defeated the Mallas and conquered Kathmandu. With strong diplomatic support from New Delhi, the rebels accepted a settlement with the Ranas under which the sovereignty of the crown was restored and the revolutionary forces, led by the Nepali Congress (NC) party, gained an ascendant position in the administration. Nepal also marks the collision point between Hinduism and Buddhism, between the Tibeto-Burmese language group and the Indo-European, and between Central Asian culture and Indian culture. The per capita income for 2007/2008 was just $470 US. Under the Licchavis, Nepal's trade ties with Tibet and China expanded, leading to a cultural and intellectual renaissance. Siddharta Gautama, born on 563 B.C.E. India and Nepal initiated their relationship with the 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship and accompanying secret letters that defined security relations between the two countries, and an agreement governing both bilateral trade and trade transiting Indian territory. There were also numerous small principalities in the western and eastern hill areas, whose independence was sustained through a delicate balance of power based upon traditional interrelationships and, in some cases, common ancestral origins (or claims thereto) among the ruling families. The documented history of Nepal begins with the Changu Narayan temple inscription of King Manadeva I (C 464-505 A.D.) of the Lichavi dynasty. Under the pressure of inheritance fights and Muslim invasions from northern India, the Malla were weakened by the early 18th century. The middle period in Nepalese history is usually considered coterminous with the rule of the Malla dynasty (10th–18th century) in Nepal Valley and surrounding areas. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Like every other country Nepal too has its unique style of architecture. Sketches from Nepal, Historical and Descriptive, 1880, 1974. A Cabinet or Council of Ministers fills out the executive branch. Others include Magar (7.1%), Tharu (6.8%), Tamang and Newar (5.5% each), Muslim (4.3%), Kami (3.9%), Rai (2.7%), Gurung (2.5%) and Damai (2.4%). In 1962, though, King Mahendra (r. 1955-72) disbanded the Congress and jailed most of the government. In fact, many Nepalese people combine Hindu and Buddhist practice; many temples and shrines are shared between the two faiths, and some deities are worshiped by both Hindus and Buddhists. They established a centralized political system by absorbing dominant regional and local elites into the central administration at Kathmandu. Nepal Democratic Congress In 1948, a new political party named the Nepal Democratic Congress was established in Calcutta. See also the list of monarchs of Nepal. It is a geographically diverse, land-locked country. The towering Himalaya Mountains attest to the colossal tectonic force of the Indian Subcontinent as it plows into mainland Asia. Nepalese Historical Personalities Find out more about the greatest Nepalese Historical Personalities, including Gyanendra of Nepal, Birendra of Nepal, Jung Bahadur Rana, Mahendra of Nepal and Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev. Nepal has a unicameral legislature, the Constituent Assembly, with 601 seats. The Shah dynasty proved weak. The British conquest of India in the 19th century posed a serious threat to Nepal—which expected to be another victim—and left the country with no real alternative but to seek an accommodation with the British to preserve its independence. The Mallas, weakened by familial dissension and widespread social and economic discontent, were no match for the great Gorkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah. Most Famous Historical Monuments of Nepal. Other common languages in Nepal include Maithili, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Gurung, Tamang, Awadhi, Kiranti, Magar, and Sherpa. The nation-state of Nepal was the creation of King Prithvi Narayan Shah. The position of the Shah dynasty was weakened by the fact that the two kings who ruled successively between 1777 and 1832 were minors when they ascended the throne. Unknown Monday, February 13, 2017 About Nepal, Facts of Nepal, History, History of Nepal, Nepal, Nepal Info History of Nepal can be divided into various periods as: 1. China and the United States are also trade partners of some significance. A pivotal moment in Nepal's history was the birth of Buddhism. The president of Nepal serves as chief of state, while the prime minister is head of government. Situated in the lap of Himalayas is a country with unbelievably diverse topography and culture. Despite its tourism and energy-production potential, Nepal remains one of the world's poorest countries. It was in this region that Prince Siddhartha Gautama was born c. 563 B.C. Under this de facto alliance, Kathmandu permitted the recruitment of Nepalese for the highly valued Gurkha units in the British Indian Army and also accepted British “guidance” on foreign policy; in exchange, the British guaranteed the Rana regime against both foreign and domestic enemies and allowed it virtual autonomy in domestic affairs. The Newari way of life still exists today and can be seen up close throughout Bhaktapur and Bandipur. Published On 18th July 2017This video is about the origination of the word and the country Nepal. Nepal’s rich prehistory consists mainly of the legendary traditions of the Newar, the indigenous community of Nepal Valley (now usually called Kathmandu Valley). This was accomplished by the Rana family regime after 1860 on terms that were mutually acceptable, if occasionally irritating, to both. In fact, the Thapa family controlled Nepal 1806-37, while the Ranas took power 1846-1951. Aug 5, 2020 - History of Nepal. The Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, was born in Lumbini, in southern Nepal. A Maoist insurgency began in 1996, ending with a communist victory in 2007. Enjoying Nepal tours, you perhaps, want to get an insight into the history of Nepal.However, it merely impossible as there will be lots of things you have to know like the story behind the attractions you visit. It's little wonder, then, that this beautiful and diverse country has fascinated travelers and explorers for centuries. Nepali is one of the Indo-Aryan languages, related to European languages. Nepal was ruled by about total of 28 kings during Kirat regime. In the nineteenth century, the Ranas, who were ministers to the kings, assumed real power, and the Shahs became puppet rulers. by travelworldplanet updated on July 20, 2018 July 13, 2018 Leave a Comment on Most Famous Historical Monuments of Nepal. The history of Nepal is something that every Nepalese looks back at and feels proud. Until 1950 and to some extent thereafter, Nepalese politics was basically conspiratorial in character, with familial loyalty taking precedence over loyalty to the crown or nation. The history of Sikkim, an area in present-day North-East India, began in 1642 as a kingdom established when India and Nepal were still many princely states with many rulers at that time and had not unified to the present Union of India and present country of Nepal. There are over 100 recognized languages in Nepal. 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