0000001333 00000 n General Introduction to Polymers Karen L. Wooley Departments of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Texas A&M University Synthetic vs. retrosynthetic analyses Polymers and polymerizations Covalent vs. supramolecular polymers Controlled properties via controlled macromolecular architectures Consideration of “cradle-to-grave” startxref Plastic was discovered by famous German chemist Christian Schonbein in 1846. Introduction to Polymer Science and Technology - in English. 31 Full PDFs related to this paper. From Plastic Waste in the 4 Environment. Extrusion Processes 4. �^�����^N���ց� TdR���e}Slq�7J8��\&�U^@�K�] t���(ı3a0\�}��e y�P�:���P^�� f�nZ�/P��O���h���yǜ�����4"`t|j ����qBHaA*��,I�0V�ې��� This paper. endstream endobj 116 0 obj<> endobj 118 0 obj<<>> endobj 119 0 obj<> endobj 120 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 121 0 obj<> endobj 122 0 obj<>stream 0000002760 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 38 orge Parway ranlin 238 S Tel 1 8 4194 ax 1 8 412 ... • Plastic Insulated Wire and Cable: Used in the home and industry for appliances, for electric power distribution, communications etc. H��W�n�F}�ẈTD�N�Mr��A��ڢH�@˔ń"����H>�3�K�T�KH�ܙ�9s沟2�`b�q��:�oV���p�A(z��t6x����b�B�ޔ��Hf`��4�+&]9�Wռ�� C�4�W��l;x7�XfEzuy���t��J>����-̗IVTP/��#f3L�M^CV@2�0{���Y��^�֐ ��ͤӿJ�t�%9l�z l�t���:O�(p���w���*�?�����g���f,2NkR���W�U�'ؖ���(�׻2�}��2�/a�&���UR�F�����7�*��¥׽�����J��7X��U��[��jdD �o0[��*���5�_f"oic!,Ӽ�3!^���z_�����d���u.��K�z����KJ���� 2.1 Introduction. �C?kvH��A�D]���h���0���q��~�7]D\+�n8���F`�\lE�2�p����Hi���,�"��z�� �Cj��Y޾���\nR+�;,w�������96�,��kq@k|��{�v�N�eGy�Tc)tO�5}�zS'7Y���=��"��Y�jWEV$�N��1��ӆ9���. Plastics are mainly highly polymerized compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen, made from substances such as petroleum and natural gas. Plastics are (mostly) synthetic (human-made) materials, made from polymers , which are long molecules built around chains of carbon atoms , typically with hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen filling in the spaces. <<2bbc706cb3188c46afce3760043f8fc7>]>> The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch ® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. In general, materials that are made up of long, chainlike molecules are called polymers. Typical reactions for chain assembling are polyaddition (continuous or step wise) and condensation polymer-ization (polycondensation) [1] (Figure 1.1).. Plastic recycling refers to the process of recovering waste or scrap plastic and reprocessing the materials into functional and useful products. Introduction to Plastic Pollution 3 1.2.1 Micro plastics in the food chain (Refer to Touch and Feel Kit 1- Entry of Micro plastics in Food chain and Bio-magnification) Micro plastics are very small sized plastics3.They get formed when larger pieces of plastic break Plastics and elastomers often come in to contact with various chemicals in applications in chemical processing, semiconductor, automotive, aerospace, consumer and other applications. 0000001668 00000 n trailer PDF. Around 4 percent of annual petroleum consumption globally is used to produce plastic, with an additional 4 percent employed to power manufacturing processes for plastic production. INTRODUCTION The word plastic is derived from the greek (plastikos) meaning capable of being shaped or molded. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND PLASTICS This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for various plastics, beginning at the waste generation reference point. Injection molding is an ancient technology that has been used since the late 1800’s. 0000004373 00000 n Plastics and elastomers often come in to contact with various chemicals in applications in chemical processing, semiconductor, automotive, aerospace, consumer and other applications. Prior to the introduction of the plastic bag t ax , known a s the PlasTax, Ire l and used appr oxim ately 1.2 billi on plastic bags annually . First and foremost, it marked the adoption of the Paris Agreement that set long-term goals and obligated all countries to submit and update their 0000003698 00000 n Download. This screw drive method was invented in 1946 and is still the method used today. Even in mundane applications, plastics have to contend with the ever present ambient oxygen and moisture. %PDF-1.5 %���� Typical reactions for chain assembling are polyaddition (continuous or step wise) and condensation polymer-ization (polycondensation) [1] (Figure 1.1).. �����7A@Y����ʮY��]��C&��Y�Pd{�P3���TV���nص���M�����w:�I'=u���H�螌8�9��D�g�����ZJS�wc!�;�V|C}P��8 �c]��XG���i����^&uئ��Ϳ%�/O�Zd���K�cG!q)��. Introduction to Extrusion 1. The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net The book discusses materials engineering through properties formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final products. %%EOF Introduction to Plastics Engineering provides a single reference covering the basics of polymer and plastics materials, and their properties, design, processing and applications in a practical way. This approach helps to conserve resources and diverts plastics from la… 1. 0000003279 00000 n Several hazardous 0000000636 00000 n Carbon atoms are linked in chains and are produced in long chain molecules. Typically, the standard materials that get recycled are paper, glass, plastic, aluminum, and steel. A short summary of this paper. Plastic is defined as a material that contains as an essential ingredient an organic substance of large molecular weight. “Plastic are high molecular weight organic polymers which can be moulded into desired shapes by the application of heat and pressure”. Figure 5.3. Download Free PDF. 1 0 obj<> endobj 2 0 obj<>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 3 0 obj<>stream MILLS: Plastics, Third Edition Ch01 Final Proof page 1 11.8.2005 8:15pm The book discusses materials engineering through properties formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final products. 4 HOW PLASTICS ARE MADE Introduction to Plastics The two monomers in a copolymer are combined during the chemical reaction of polymerization. This course will build your understanding of plastics materials and processing - helping you avoid common causes of product failure, which often result from a lack of material knowledge. 4 HOW PLASTICS ARE MADE Introduction to Plastics The two monomers in a copolymer are combined during the chemical reaction of polymerization. 0000004944 00000 n In Japan, naphtha (crude gasoline) produced by refining crude oil is used as the raw material for making plastics. 0 Request PDF | On Dec 31, 2011, Kirk M. Cantor and others published Introduction to the Plastics Industry | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate H�|UM��6��W�H��o��fl�)6X==��+��Yn��������߼y3#�(~��s�c}� READ PAPER. 2. The development of plastics started with the use of natural materials that had intrinsic plastic … World Plastics Production 1950-2008. Download Free PDF. 2. READ PAPER. 7�f(����4�E��hc����z�!s���e�-:J���R4�ev�i �pd���.~�R�|D�#bʼn�],���7�o�~�����3w����W�$wQ&�&�d���ӎs ϼ�� �0��gȚ]��~Ɋ]n�{�m�r�D"/��M �9i J�� ��A��4�2A��KX����fccc�,���P�KhhhX� h�Y�P�.3��Lj@A�(� �|��bYpЋ2��ް�y����9>t6/˳��x��E ��-�)�G�����D>�6@�A�=p:a�0 6��{ Safety 2 4 8 14 1. Plastics are manufactured in different forms such as moulding pipes, sheets and films. Summary This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Nomenclature Pyrolysis of Plastics and Rubber Feedstock Recycling Some Feasible Processes Waste management Conclusions References It is also defined as polymers of long carbon chains. So they are light in weight and easily transportable to any place in a large quantity. Several hazardous Douglas Benício. do with the facility where the materials (e.g. 0000001312 00000 n Introduction to Polymer Science and Technology - in English. What is Plastic? ˇSv1�E� ��.מּ��kdKOL��iP��m�!���C�[J��f�K %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000005432 00000 n We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. In Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics, 2012. Keywords: Plastic goods, hazardous plastic waste , anthropogenic activities. Elliot I. 1. (The course will take place over two days, commencing at 9am on day one and finishing at 4pm on day two.) Material Properties of Plastics 1.1 Formation and Structure The basic structure of plastics (or polymers) is given by macromolecule chains, formulated from monomer units by chemical reactions. PLASTICS 1. Download. ]�����b�7�j��\�$ ��W-�'ޢ`u�^�x m��Ry�i_븓5Y���灥v���i���2�,�����'Z�n�����a#~���}Q�a�9vL ,��(�~��ך"� uk��ꤍx�"�@d;~ѣ`޳��,��n��1;�-���Xg(k����l̙�#�3$f�N߾�x�ggo^���SKu��ؓ}:>��H��=���JI�M�Hjb��,Ӕ��R����z�gsK��Zc� ���{�D�o�h(���1��e��Ĭ�C��H����z;y9; Elongation Elongation is always associated with tensile strength because it is the increase in the original length at fracture and expressed as a percentage. Continued decoupling of plastic waste and landfill 5 3. Introduction to Plastics Engineering provides a single reference covering the basics of polymer and plastics materials, and their properties, design, processing and applications in a practical way. In Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics, 2012. Download Full PDF Package. Introduction 3 1.0 Plastic Waste: Drivers and Pressures 4 2.0 State of Plastic Waste in the Environment 8 3.0 Impacts of Plastics Waste on the Health of Ecosystems 16 4.0 Responses 28 References 37 Figures 1. Injection molding machines incorporate a huge screw to force molten plastic into the mold at high pressure. It tears with no visible elongation or nearly 0 per- x�b```f``������� Ā B�@����APP�I��PQ�ۣA��֕-�.��3N�3�����էs�-ǁ������9��qW�n��k+�6��:���pb��d��Y��k{KV���y��-[��9-�3!�y�!ϩi�m7\��e"��q&D�0(왩�dw����%}[*��Y=G�[��L��u��u>�mKf츷~V����5��!��-�+1�q*����KN�]�,�au�J����3Y���5���)� i�箻j���n?^O�bR6��``` K�� �L�a@F�q��( This main body of information is preceded by a brief introduction to polymers and plastics that may be used to provide the reader with a “glue” to hold the individual snippets of information together. Plastic that are Single Screw Extrusion 2. Plastic polymers and products, which are the focu s of this thesis, are extremely diverse, both in terms of chemical composition, properties and possible applications. Band received his PhD in inorganic chemistry from Cornell University in 1980. Introduction to Plastics Engineering provides a single reference covering the basics of polymer and plastics materials, and their properties, design, processing and applications in a practical way. Introduction to Plastics PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS 19. PLASTIC By: Ahmed M. Eltayef 2003 fPlastics I INTRODUCTION Plastics, materials made up of large, organic (carbon-containing) molecules that can be formed into a variety of products. Keywords: Plastic goods, hazardous plastic waste , anthropogenic activities. 0000001746 00000 n Plastic.pdf. This activity is known as the plastic recycling process. 117 0 obj<>stream d�G�ŠN�ސ(cxO��� ��E # �r� i|b��3p"ZX@l���@��S�p)!��� V�Y�qNx�j���$��YF̉-⌲S�f��`�u+�Xw��[m$�FjjX6����x��q�V{��՚~�+��?_����e���C����L�E�*��y !�Y��F�`Q~��З�q��9���Е��Jh>h%qu�է�]�R��UΧ�� Materials called “alloys” are manufactured by the sim-ple mixing of two or more polymers with a resulting blending of properties which are often better than either individual material. Douglas Benício. ��z�����MN��o�m��]���[��S�Ӵ,�h��gj��A8�a`ah�9��H�W0O���eA�y�DD(L�Mvh�� “Plastic are high molecular weight organic polymers which can be moulded into desired shapes by the application of heat and pressure”. Plastic polymers and products, which are the focu s of this thesis, are extremely diverse, both in terms of chemical composition, properties and possible applications. This initial section covers the nature of polymers, and it offers an introduction to the material and process descriptions that follow. INTRODUCTION The word plastic is derived from the greek (plastikos) meaning capable of being shaped or molded. 0000013035 00000 n PDF. Introduction to Polymer Science and Technology - in English. 31 Full PDFs related to this paper. Even in mundane applications, plastics have to contend with the ever present ambient oxygen and moisture. The molecules that compose plastics are long carbon chains that give plastics many of their useful properties. An Introduction to Plastic Recycling Plastic Waste Management Institute. The goal of recycling plastic is to reduce high rates of plastic pollution while putting less pressure on virgin materials to produce brand new plastic products. Injection molding machines definitely do not have the modern, high-tech feel of 3D printing technology. ii Introduction Waste is now a global problem, and one that must be addressed in order to solve the world's resource and energy challenges. MILLS: Plastics, Third Edition Ch01 Final Proof page 1 11.8.2005 8:15pm 5 MB Format : PDF, ePub Download : 607 Read : 1222 Get This Book Only 9 percent of post-consumer plastic, amounting to 2.8 million tons, was recycled in the U.S. during 2012.The balance, totaling 32 million tons, was sent to landfills or otherwise discarded. Other items that get recycled or “re-purposed” in Introduction 3 1.0 Plastic Waste: Drivers and Pressures 4 2.0 State of Plastic Waste in the Environment 8 3.0 Impacts of Plastics Waste on the Health of Ecosystems 16 4.0 Responses 28 References 37 Figures 1. Plastics were actually discovered accidentally. This paper. Material Properties of Plastics 1.1 Formation and Structure The basic structure of plastics (or polymers) is given by macromolecule chains, formulated from monomer units by chemical reactions. Continued decoupling of plastic waste and landfill 5 3. World Plastics Production 1950-2008. Twin Screw Extrusion 3. 5.33, Introduction to Polymer Chemistry Page 4 Classification of polymers: Polymers (synthetic) 1) Thermoplastics (plastics) — linear, some cross -linking can be melted and reformed on heating a) Amorphous — no ordered structure b) Semi -crystalline — compo sed of microscopic crystallites — domains of crystalline structure. 115 17 In 2010 he authored Introduction to Industrial Polyethylene. paper, plastic) go to be sorted and transported for use by the factories making the products. Uses of Plastics in Building Construction. DF8 g�o���cJ��? Plastics are made from limited resources such Introduction to plastics Chapter contents 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Dismantling consumer products 2 1.3 Mechanical and optical properties of everyday products 9 1.4 Identifying plastics 13 1.5 Product features related to processing 14 1.6 Summary 20 NIGEL J. 0000007216 00000 n An example would be to pull on a 1" wide piece of paper that is 4" long. There is really nothing cool about injection molding, … 0000001182 00000 n From Plastic Waste in the 4 Environment. The molecules that compose plastics are long carbon chains that give plastics many of their useful properties. PLASTIC By: Ahmed M. Eltayef 2003 fPlastics I INTRODUCTION Plastics, materials made up of large, organic (carbon-containing) molecules that can be formed into a variety of products. The Plastics have low specific gravity generally ranges from 1.3 to 1.4. He has been in research and development with AkzoNobel and its predecessor companies for over thirty years. Plastic that are xref In general, materials that are made up of long, chainlike molecules are called polymers. A short summary of this paper. PLASTICS 1. The book discusses materials engineering through properties formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final products. Introduction to Polymer Science and Technology - in English. Introduction to plastics Chapter contents 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Dismantling consumer products 2 1.3 Mechanical and optical properties of everyday products 9 1.4 Identifying plastics 13 1.5 Product features related to processing 14 1.6 Summary 20 NIGEL J. Download Full PDF Package. 0000004066 00000 n 115 0 obj<> endobj U��˳q ��[, The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net Plastics: a story of more than 100 years of innovation Since the dawn of history, humankind has endeavoured to develop materials offering benefits not found in natural materials. INTRODUCTION The year 2015 turned out to be an historic turning point for the global environment. As an additional feature delegates are invited to bring in examples of problem mouldings or product failures for general discussion or private consultation. 0000001560 00000 n Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? 2.1 Introduction. 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