Typically developing infants are able to respond to native and non-native speech sounds, words and grammatical structures (Kuhl, Conboy, Padden, Nelson & Pruitt, 2005). Our speech and language therapists can help children who have a phonological disorder by providing a therapy programme that works on increasing their intelligibility to others. In the right column of Row 1, we see that the typical therapy goals in common are consonant and vowel inventory expansion to give the child ‘more to work with’. SLPs/SLTs who reside outside of the United States can join ASHA as international affiliates and access many resources including all editions of the ASHA journals, and enquiries should go to firstname.lastname@example.org. The characteristics that can be evident in either disorder, or that may be present when CAS and phonological disorder co-occur in the same child, are. These include lack of time, lack of ready access to published literature and lack of skill in evaluating the evidence (e.g., Bernstein Ratner, 2006; Gosling & Westbrook, 2004; Jansen, Rasekaba, Presnell & Holland, 2012; Johnson, 2006; Roddam & Skeat, 2010; Rose & Baldac, 2004; Vallino-Napoli & Reilly, 2004). Audiology report Creative use of gesture.FrustrationFrustrated when not understood (or passive, or unhappy), or ‘resigned’ or ‘adjusted’ to not being a talker? Delayed syllable/word structure development It starts with the proposition (Velleman, 2005) that phonological disorder and CAS have at least six inter-related characteristics in common that, when it gets right down to it in everyday practice, we find ourselves treating symptomatically, while still taking the primary diagnosis into account. Bi-syllabic 2bunny happy today canoe Indeed, when surveyed, most clinicians report placing a high value on the importance of research, and desire to keep up to date with the evidence-base underpinning practice (Stephens & Upton, 2012; Vallino-Napoli & Reilly, 2004). Despite this, there has been a flurry of research addressing some important questions about CAS (e.g., the core features of CAS via longitudinal case studies, Highman, Hennessey, Leitão & Piek (2013), perceptual aspects of CAS, Froud and Khamis-Dakwar (2012; A42), and treatment protocols, Murray, McCabe and Ballard, (2012; A42)). These are worthy aspirations, because in combining our clinical knowledge with new evidence and theories, we may be better positioned to provide more effective, efficient and appropriate services (Reilly, Douglas & Oates, 2004). We propose, pending further investigation, that speech sound disorders as a broad category involve differential degrees of impairment to a complex network that regulates interactions between phonological representations, their phonetic instantiations, and the motor realisations of speech sounds. List vowel inventory/constraints and calculate Percentage of Vowels Correct (PVC) if applicable. She is the director of the Neurophysiology in Speech Language Pathology Lab, where she conducts research into the neural correlates of linguistic processing and representation in specific sociolinguistic situations, such as Arabic diglossia, and functional changes related to SLP treatment and language learning. 5. Persisting phonological processes Test: Stimulability testing to 2 syllable positions. The ability to hold on to speech-based information in short-term memory is called phonological memory. expansion of phonetic inventory Look for phonological processes/patterns that ‘should have been’ eliminated. Do vowels ‘wander’? Ask about teasing/bullying (Hennessy & Hennessy, 2013, pp. Also, the child will misuse or not use the rules of proper grammar. As a motor speech disorder, CAS is a discrete diagnostic subtype of childhood (paediatric) SSD. A number of additional features often observed in CAS are discussed in detail within the report. One way to evaluate this hypothesis is to examine the neural mechanisms associated with speech sound perception and processing in CAS. Among the first steps in the PhD process (Mewburn, 2013; Petre & Rugg, 2010) are choosing both a topic area and a research question or questions. The MMN is a fronto-central ERP component that can be elicited by the presence of a ‘deviant’ sound in a sequence of repetitive auditory stimuli (referred to as an ‘oddball paradigm’– see Dehaene-Lambertz & Gliga, 2004, for a review). consonant (C), vowel (V) and phonotactic inventory constraints (i.e., consonants, vowels and syllable-word shapes are missing from the respective inventories); Research in the next decade will capitalise on the greater accessibility of neuroimaging methodologies and the increasing application of such approaches to speech and language disorders. PhrasesMake up stimuli to suitthe child being testedMe too;Big boy Test: Study inventories for later sounds and absent earlier sounds. Our attempt to examine the neural underpinnings of CAS using neurophysiological methods was undertaken against a backdrop of conflicting research showing lack of agreement with regards to the aetiology, symptoms, and most effective treatment of CAS (e.g., Davis et al., 1998; Forrest, 2003; Shriberg, Aram & Kwiatkowski, 1997b). 212–213). One way to evaluate this hypothesis is to examine the neural mechanisms associated with speech sound perception and processing in CAS. The ad-hoc CAS committee acknowledged that an affected child’s speech characteristics may change over time, and that the three features ‘are not proposed to be the necessary and sufficient signs of CAS’ (ASHA, 2007b, p. 2). CrossRef View Record in Scopus Google Scholar. Consider an informal long words task. In contrast to the ASHA CAS Technical Report, the RCSLT policy statement recommended the term DVD should only apply to idiopathic cases, where there is not an associated known neurological or neurobehavioural disorder. The RCSLT policy statement on DVD (2011) also supported the existence of the symptom complex of CAS (using the terminology DVD; see the policy statement for a discussion). expansion of phonetic inventory Utilising available published conference proceedings on topics of interest (e.g., Shriberg & Campbell, 2002). Chantelle Highman: Keeping up to date with the literature In considering whether CAS might in fact involve a representational component, we had recourse to literature from several distinct (though related) disciplines: foundational understanding of typical phonological development and representation; the neuroscientific literature on phonological processing, specifically the mismatch negativity (MMN) component; and previous studies that had examined acoustic parameters in acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) in adults. Simplifications in the form of systemic or substitution processes, e.g., stopping, gliding; simplifications of syllable structures, e.g., FCD, CR, WSD Discussing these ramifications, Gierut, p. S87, takes the view that, ‘research calls for both retrospective and prospective studies of the etiology of phonological disorders and the identification of integrated causal relationships and their outcome on a speaker’s daily life’. Test: Relational Analysis (study the norms). In her response to Q41, she discusses the role and process of reading the literature as it relates to practice, and the therapy and research implications of the ratified report (ASHA, 2007a) and position statement (ASHA, 2007b). In response to what is found in the literature, and in response to what emerges from discussion with advisors or supervisors (Deem & Brehony, 2000) and mentors, the potential doctoral candidate may reach a point of wanting to reformulate the topic and/or questions, abandoning some questions and honing and sharpening others. inconsistent errors on consonants and vowels in repeated productions of syllables or words, Use PA Tests, e.g., SPAT-R (Neilson, 2003). How should it be assessed? ˈmɪtʃˌʌz ˌoutˈʃəz (B) Observations of elicited utterances Example for a young child or one with very Severe impairment Examine, dynamically, the child’s ability to sequence movement for phonetic sequences in various contexts: (1) Vowels (2) CV VC CVC (3) Monosyllabic, bisyllabic, polysyllabic words (4) Phrases (5) Sentences of increasing length looking at the child’s: Movement accuracy; Vowel production; Consistency; and Prosody, and the level of support required. Attending relevant CPD/CEU events, especially those that present a synthesis of the available literature on a given topic. Test: Relational Analysis. Simplifications AND increased segmental complexity: e.g., affricates replacing stops; clusters replacing singletons; diphthongs replacing vowels PA/Literacy Ask parents; formal tests. Long Term Phonology Goal: ... Short Term . Characteristics Phonological disorder (PD) and childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) The advent of online social networking, in particular Twitter and selected blogs, can make ‘following’ a line of research (or researcher) easier. Subsequently, specific treatment appro- aches have been investigated using progressively stronger levels of rigour. James (A50) identified the following 10 words as being the most ‘clinically useful’ or most revealing diagnostically: ambulance, hippopotamus, computer, spaghetti, vegetables, helicopter, animals, caravan, caterpillar and butterfly, in her study of polysyllabic words and words containing consonant clusters. Table 6.1 Phonological disorder and childhood apraxia of speech: Characteristics and goals in common. Inconsistent realisation of temporal constraints on both speech and pause events Against this background, we found it difficult to ignore the notion that CAS might in fact involve a representational component. Goal quality was determined by examining 7 specific indicators outlined by an empirically tested rating tool. Such impairment results in speech production and prosodic errors. Her co-author in A42 is Dr. Reem Khamis-Dakwar. Story time? Specifically, coarticulation effects were shown to be disturbed in the speech production of adults with a diagnosis of AOS (Mayer, 1995; Dogil & Mayer, 1998), with the typical ratio of speech transitions (i.e., the time spent transitioning from one speech sound to another) being greatly reduced. This is despite extensive research (documented in detail elsewhere in this volume) providing evidence of CAS as involving impairment or delay of aspects of language-specific phonological representation (PR), from a number of different domains: auditory speech sound perception (Bridgeman & Snowling, 1998; Maassen, Groenen & Crul, 2003); language and literacy development in CAS (Adel Aziz, Shohdi, Osman & Habib, 2010; Crary, 1984; Davis & Velleman, 2000; Lewis, Freebairn, Hansen, Iyengar & Taylor, 2004; Marion, Sussman & Marquardt, 1993; Marquardt, Sussman, Snow & Jacks, 2002); phonetic and perceptual analysis of speech of individuals with CAS (Munson, Bjorum & Windsor, 2003).